Department of Energy Awards over $16 Million for 23 Projects that will Reduce Carbon Emissions Across the Manufacturing Sector

Source: US Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

Today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the REMADE Institute announced more than $16 million in research and development funding for 23 projects that will reduce energy use and carbon emissions associated with industrial-scale materials production, processing, and recycling. These projects will advance the technology needed to increase the reuse, remanufacturing, recovery, and recycling of industrial materials.  
“The transition to a net-zero greenhouse gas economy will require an unprecedented reduction in the embodied energy and carbon emissions associated with foundational industrial materials in every critical sector—from healthcare, to agriculture, to transportation,” said Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Kelly Speakes-Backman. “By investing in technologies that improve our ability to re-use, recycle and remanufacture these materials, DOE is moving America toward a circular economy and reducing carbon emission across the manufacturing sector.”   
Selected projects focus on reducing the consumption of raw materials, designing and using products more efficiently, and preserving and extending the lifecycle of products. Projects were selected in the following areas:  
Industry-led, transformational project that will develop and demonstrate technology solutions with the potential to revolutionize the recycling industries.
Traditional R&D projects that will increase material reuse, remanufacturing, recovering, and recycling and identify strategic opportunities to reduce the energy use and emissions associated with materials production, processing, and recycling.
Education and workforce development projects fostering the next generation of clean energy manufacturers through curriculum focused material reuse, remanufacturing, recovering, and recycling.  
View a list of selected projects here.  
Founded in 2017, the REMADE Institute is the fifth clean energy manufacturing institute funded by DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Advanced Manufacturing Office.  
Visit the REMADE Institute website to learn more.   

Department of Energy Launches Fourth Lab-Embedded Entrepreneurship Program to Help Clean Energy Innovators Move Breakthrough Ideas from the Lab to the Marketplace

Source: US Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

Today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) launched the latest expansion of its Lab-Embedded Entrepreneurship Program to accelerate the commercialization of clean energy technologies. Hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), West Gate will join three existing sites of the Lab-Embedded Entrepreneurship Program to equip scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs with the training, technical resources, and mentorship they need to develop next-generation technologies that will pave the way to a zero-carbon economy. 
“We launched the Lab-Embedded Entrepreneurship program seven years ago to provide clean energy innovators with a critical bridge between discovery and commercialization,” said Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Kelly Speakes-Backman. “We’re thrilled to expand this mentorship program and support more entrepreneurs whose novel ideas will power our clean energy future and ensure that’s it’s made right here at home.”   
Through West Gate, up to five innovators will be selected via a competitive process and will each receive: 
Two-year paid fellowships: Each fellowship provides an annual stipend of $100,000 with healthcare and relocation benefits for qualifying candidates.
National laboratory access and research funding: Participants will gain unparalleled access to NREL’s facilities, equipment, and expertise, as well as receive $175,000 of research and development funding to foster research collaboration.
Business mentors, entrepreneurial training, and networking: Fellows will have access to experienced business mentorship, entrepreneurial training programs, and exclusive networking opportunities.  These programs will  expose fellows to a wide range of leaders from academia, industry, government, and finance that can serve as advisors and partners. 
The program is seeking scientists and engineers with novel ideas to decarbonize the manufacturing industry, deploy clean energy technologies that will reduce emissions across the U.S. economy, and support an equitable clean energy future made in America. Past Lab-Embedded Entrepreneurship Program innovators have developed breakthrough technologies spanning American industries – from new materials to create higher efficiency solar panels to a biomanufacturing process to make fungi-based meat alternatives.  
Interested participants should review the West Gate webpage for more information on program offerings, eligibility, and application instructions. 
The Lab-Embedded Entrepreneurship Programs are primarily funded through the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO). Since the program’s inception in 2015, AMO has awarded more than $48 million to over 115 innovators running 93 start-ups. Program participants have gone on to attract over $520 million in additional federal funding and follow-on private funding from philanthropy, angel investors, venture capital, and strategic investors. 

New Report on Children and Data Protection Laws in Ireland

Source: US Global Legal Monitor

The following is a guest post by Clare Feikert-Ahalt, a senior foreign law specialist at the Law Library of Congress covering the United Kingdom and several other jurisdictions. Clare has written numerous posts for In Custodia Legis, including 100 Years of “Poppy Day” in the United Kingdom; Weird Laws, or Urban Legends?FALQs: Brexit Referendum; and The UK’s Legal Response to the London Bombings of 7/7.

The Law Library recently published a report titled Children’s Online Privacy and Data Protection for Ireland. This adds Ireland to the Law Library’s report on this subject that cover 10 jurisdictions: the European Union (EU) and its member states of DenmarkFranceGermanyGreecePortugalSpainSweden, and Romania, and the non-EU member of the United Kingdom (UK).

Title page of the Law Library’s report “Ireland: Data Protection and Children.”

As Ireland is a member of the European Union, it must follow the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which took effect in all EU member states, plus the UK, on May 25, 2018. Ireland implemented the Data Protection Act in 2018 to give effect to certain aspects of the GDPR in its domestic laws. This Act also established the Data Protection Commission (DPC), which is the national independent authority in Ireland that supervises the GDPR and ensures it is implemented.

Children’s personal data is provided with special protection under both the 2018 Act and the GDPR. In December 2020, the DPC published a draft code, titled Fundamentals for a Child-Oriented Approach to Data Processing (known as “the Fundamentals”), under the Data Protection Act. The Fundamentals aim to clarify the principles in the obligations under the GDPR and set “high-level obligations” that organizations must take before processing children’s data, and highlight that the best interests of the child take precedence over any legitimate business interests.

Since the Law Library’s report was published, on November 19, 2021, the DPC published a report into the findings of the public consultation on the Fundamentals. In this report, the DPC concluded “[t]he best interests of the child must ground the actions of all data controllers, and there must be a floor of protection below which no user, and in particular no child user, drops” and that it is satisfied that the broad approach of applying the Fundamentals to services that are likely to be accessed by children is the correct one to take, but stated that it will add text to help clarify this, and some of the other Fundamentals, further.

The DPC stated that it will work to finalize the Fundamentals and publish them. It notes that once the Fundamentals are published in their final form they “will have immediate effect and there will be no lead-in period for compliance.” The DPC has stated that this is because the Fundamentals are not a statutory code, nor are they, in essence, new obligations for organizations, noting:

the GDPR is now more than 3 years into its application. Organisations which process children’s personal data – particularly in the digital sectors where business models are predicated upon the processing of personal data for the provision of services – should throughout that period, in line with their accountability obligations under GDPR, have been constantly keeping their child protective measures under review and revision in order to achieve the higher standards of protection which the GDPR requires in relation to the processing of children’s data.

Thus, once the DPC publishes the Fundamentals in their final form they will enter into effect and the DPC will consider an organization’s compliance with the Fundamentals when assessing whether it has met the obligations of the GDPR.

Subscribe to In Custodia Legis – it’s free! – to receive interesting posts drawn from the Law Library of Congress’s vast collections and our staff’s expertise in U.S., foreign, and international law.

A Civil Body Politic: The Mayflower Compact and 17th-Century Corporations

Source: US Global Legal Monitor

Last year, to mark the 400th anniversary of the Mayflower Compact, I wrote a post on this blog about the Compact’s origins and legacy in Early American history. In that post, I wrote that the Compact served as a place-holder to acknowledge that the colonists were operating outside the region of North America that their patent authorized them to settle. It did not solve the problem of their need for a new patent for their colony. It did, however, represent a best effort at coloring their actions as legal or quasi-legal.

The language of the Compact is at once concise and vague – in its brief 195 words, it does not propose specific laws or a form of government, and it characterizes the collective that the people aboard the Mayflower intended to create with a famous but somewhat opaque phrase: “civil body politic.” In this post, I’d like to talk about the expression “civil body politic” and what it probably meant to the settlers at that time.

At the time of the Mayflower Compact, the phrase “body politic” was routinely used in the law to refer to corporations of all sorts. The category of corporation was both more broadly conceived in the 17th century than the modern word corporation and more transitional. While the latter might generally refer to private for-profit companies that bear a number of traits, including shareholder ownership, professional management, limited liability, and indefinite lifespan, corporations in the 17th century included, for example, hospitals, charities, colleges, some trade guilds, towns, public utilities, and even certain individuals who occupied important posts in public institutions. (Sheppard, pp. 1-5.) Relatively fewer business endeavors benefited from incorporation at that time than now, especially among joint-stock companies. (Seavoy, pp. 46-47.) It was also a period in which the Crown experimented with the new directions in the use of the corporate form. (Guenther, p. 10.)

William Sheppard, an attorney and author of several books in the 17th century, wrote Of Corporations, Fraternities and Guilds (London, 1659), a brief work on the law of corporations. In the introduction, he writes about his subject, “…although art cannot altogether arrive at the perfection of nature; yet it has in this showed a fair adumbration, and given to man the nearest resemblance of his maker, that is, to be in a sort immortal.” Photo by Nathan Dorn.

The word corporation itself is derived from the Latin word corpus, which means body, via the verb corporare, which means to embody. This usage rests on the widespread and longstanding European tradition of using the metaphor of a body to describe human communities. One pervasive idea was that the people in a community acted together in such a way that they became the mutually dependent parts of a single living organism, with, the king, for instance, standing in as the head. This metaphor has roots in antiquity, and can be traced in various forms through medieval Europe and England where it was used for a variety of organizations, but especially the church and the state. (Chroust, pp. 451-452.) Along somewhat different lines, it was repeated by lawyers in Tudor England that the King has two bodies, a natural one, that is mortal and will die, and a “body politic,” an institutional personality representing his sovereignty that can never die. (Axton, p. 212.)

The idea that smaller collective bodies within the kingdom could have and benefit from distinctive traits such as corporate personality and perpetual life already appeared in English sources from the 13th century. (Baker, p. 213.) By the 17th century, the law regularly used the expression “body politic” to make a distinction between natural persons – i.e. even human beings who are not the king – and artificial persons, which were often secular organizations, companies, or associations.

William Sheppard, the first author to write a treatise of any kind on the law of corporations in England, expressed it in his book Of Corporations, Fraternities and Guilds (London, 1659) this way, “our law doth take notice of a body natural, and a body politic.” (Sheppard, p. 2.) A corporation, he explains, is “a body in fiction of law.” The anonymous author of the second treatise on corporations, The Law of corporations: containing the laws and customs of all the corporations and inferior courts of record in England (London, 1702), repeats this formula and expands somewhat on Sheppard’s language: “A corporation or an incorporation is a body framed by policy or fiction of law, and it’s called an incorporation or body incorporate because the persons are made into a body, which endureth in perpetual succession…” (The Law of Corporations, pp. 1-2.)

The anonymous author of The Law of Corporations (London, 1702), the first serious treatise on the law of corporations, remarks in his introduction about William Sheppard’s earlier book on the subject, “I remember not any treatise designedly written on this subject except a little duodecimo by Mr. Shepard (sic), which extends not to the fortieth part of matters relating to corporations.” Photo by Nathan Dorn.

Generally, the creation of a corporation required the state’s authority. Both of the treatises cited above followed the analysis of “the lawful authority of incorporation” that Sir Edward Coke presented in the 1612 Case of Sutton’s Hospital. (Holdsworth, p. 382.) A corporation could only be created in one of four ways, namely a) by the common law (the prime example of this was the king; the British monarch is still today a corporation sole); b) by the authority of parliament; c) by royal charter, and d) by prescription or custom. ((1612) 10 Co. Rep. 1a, 30b.)

The state was willing to extend the privilege of incorporation on the grounds that the companies promote its preferred public policies. (Williston, 105, 110.) For instance, to provide assistance for the needy, it incorporated hospitals and charities; or to grow markets, through the establishments of fairs and trade guilds. At the end of the 16th century, the Crown began experimenting with the use of the corporate form to confer exclusive rights to conduct trade in foreign lands. This led to the creation of the merchant trading companies: the Merchant Venturers (1551), the Muscovy Company (1555), the Levant Company (1581), the Cathay Company (1576) and the East India Company (1600). (Baker, p. 483.)

In the 17th century, the Crown chartered corporations to further its efforts to build colonies in foreign lands. (Osgood, p. 261.) As a result, the language of corporations appears in the charters of early American colonies. To name a few examples, the Charter of New England, issued in 1620, establishes that company as “one body politic and corporate.” The same phrase appears in A Grant of the Province of Maine to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and John Mason in 1622. The Charter of Massachusetts Bay of 1629 also creates that colony as “one body politic and corporate.” Likewise, when Parliament passed the act of incorporation for the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England in 1649, it established it as “one body politic and corporate in law.” The Harvard Charter of 1650 (which was not a royal charter) also establishes “one body politic and corporate in law.” As for Plymouth, part of the long hoped-for solution to the colony’s need for official authorization came in the Charter of the Colony of New Plymouth Granted to William Bradford and his Associates in 1629, which likewise established “one body politic and corporate.”

The Mayflower Compact’s “civil body politic” may have been meant to refer to a body politic that was “civil” as opposed to “ecclesiastical,” which is a distinction that is found in corporations of the time (Kyd, p. 22.) And since some see the Compact as a civil parallel to the church covenants that were an important feature of the practice of the separatist community who settled Plymouth, this meaning is suggestive. Or it may have been meant as a civil corporation as opposed to an eleemosynary, or charitable one, which is another distinction that one encounters. (Kyd, p. 25.) Or it was “civil” in the sense of urban, as a township, which is an obsolete meaning of the word that is attested in the 17th century. Or the word “civil” simply relates to community and citizenship. In any event, lacking the authority of the Crown and the formalities that royal charters or parliamentary acts of incorporation required, the Compact did not create a corporation that was valid in England. It looks in retrospect like a founding of a different sort.

Early works on corporations law in the Law Library’s rare books collection include:

Sheppard, William, -1675? Of corporations, fraternities, and guilds, or, A discourse, wherein the learning of the law touching bodies politique is unfolded, shewing the use and necessity of that invention, the antiquity, various kinds, order and government of the same … London: Printed for H. Twyford, T. Dring, and J. Place, and are to be sold at their shops …, 1659.

The Law of corporations: containing the laws and customs of all the corporations and inferior courts of record in England. Treating of the essentials of, and incidents to, a corporation. Of mayors, bailiffs, serjeants, &. and their executing process… London, Printed by the assigns of R. and E. Atkins for I. Cleeve, 1702.

Kyd, Stewart, -1811. A treatise on the law of corporations. London: Printed for J. Butterworth …, 1793-1794.

Angell, Joseph K. (Joseph Kinnicut), 1794-1857. A treatise on the law of private corporations aggregate, by Joseph K. Angell and Samuel Ames. Boston, Hilliard, Gray, Little & Wilkins, 1832 [c1831].

Secondary Sources:

Axton, Marie. The Influence of Edmund Plowden’s Succession Treatise. Huntington Library Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 3 (May, 1974), pp. 209-226.

Baker, John H. (John Hamilton). An introduction to English legal history. Fifth edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Bilder, Mary Sarah. “The Corporate Origins of Judicial Review.” Yale Law Journal 116, no.3 (2006): 502-566.

Bilder, Mary Sarah. “English Settlement and Local Governance.” in The Cambridge History of Law in America. Eds. Michael Grossberg, Christopher Tomlins. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007-2008. pp. 63-103.

Chroust, Anton-Hermann. The Corporate Idea and the Body Politic in the Middle Ages. The Review of Politics, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Oct., 1947), pp. 423-452.

Guenther, David B. “Of Bodies Politic and Pecuniary: A Brief History of Corporate Purpose,” Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review, Vol. 9, no. 1 (2020).

Kantorowicz, H. The King’s Two Bodies, A Study in Medieval Political Theology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016 [1957]).

F.W. Maitland, ‘The Crown as Corporation’, in The Collected Papers, ed. H.A.L. Fisher, vol. 3. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911).

Osgood, Herbert L. “The Corporation as a Form of Colonial Government.” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Jun., 1896), pp. 259-277.

Seavoy, Ronald E. The origins of the American business corporation, 1784-1855: broadening the concept of public service during industrialization. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982).

Williston, Samuel. “History of the Law of Business Corporations Before 1800 I,” Harvard Law Review, 2, No. 3 (Oct. 15, 1888), pp. 105-124.

Watch Recordings of Past Law Library Webinars and Events

Source: US Global Legal Monitor

Over the past year, the Law Library has held many webinars on topics concerning foreign, international, and comparative law, Law Library collections, as well as how to research U.S. case law, federal statutes, and federal regulations. The Law Library also presented its annual Law Day and Constitution Day events.

University of Richmond Law Professor Kurt Lash provided a lecture for the Law Library of Congress 2021 Constitution Day Event.

If you missed any of these webinars, the good news is we recorded them, and they are available in several places. You can find Law Library events on our YouTube page and on the Law Library’s Past Presentations page. To view any Law Library webinars, you can check out our YouTube webinar recordings playlist.

We hope you enjoy these recordings and will join us for our upcoming webinars and events, such as Human Rights Day on December 9, 2021. You can find a complete list of upcoming webinars and events on the Law Library’s Legal Research Institute page.

Subscribe to In Custodia Legis – it’s free! – to receive interesting posts drawn from the Law Library of Congress’s vast collections and our staff’s expertise in U.S., foreign, and international law.

Department of Energy Announces $3 Million in High Performance Computing Research at National Laboratories

Source: US Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

Today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced up to $3 million to connect industry partners with U.S. National Laboratory high-performance computing (HPC) resources that will accelerate the development of breakthrough manufacturing and clean energy technologies. As part of DOE’s latest High Performance Computing for Energy Innovation (HPC4EI) solicitation, selected teams will apply advanced modeling, simulation, and data analysis to projects that improve manufacturing efficiency and explore new materials for clean energy application.
“Our National Laboratories are home to the most sophisticated high-performance computing technologies in the world,” said Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Kelly Speakes-Backman. “Capable of making one quintillion calculations per second, these supercomputers will arm us with the information we need to reduce carbon emissions across U.S. industries and fight the climate crisis right here at home.”
The HPC4EI initiative solicitation will fund projects in DOE’s HPC for Manufacturing (HPC4Mfg) and HPC for Materials in Applied Energy Technologies (HPC4Mtls) programs.
The HPC4Mfg program seeks manufacturing partners interested in harnessing HPC resources to lower emissions across America’s industries and improve the efficiency and productivity of U.S. manufacturing. Specific areas of interest include:  
Reductions in CO2 or CO2-equivalent emissions through electrification, improved carbon-capturing processes, and the integration of low-to-zero carbon fuels
Improvements in manufacturing processes that result in significant national energy savings and carbon emissions 
Improvements in the lifecycle energy consumption and carbon emissions reduction of products of interest 
Efficiency improvements and carbon emissions reduction in energy conversion and storage technologies
The HPC4Mtls program seeks industry partners looking to apply HPC-based solutions to bolster the domestic materials supply chain needed for fossil energy applications, including reduced material costs or improved carbon capture for power plants or clean hydrogen. Specific areas of interest include:
Advanced Structural Materials for Hydrogen Applications
Advanced Structural Materials for Fossil Energy Applications
Advanced Functional Materials for Hydrogen Applications
The HPC4EI solicitation will encourage applicants to partner with a diverse range of universities, community colleges, and non-profit organizations, especially those located in disadvantaged communities. This focus ensures the equitable use and benefits of HPC national laboratory resources and technologies.
DOE will award up to $300,000 to selected projects to support computing cycles and work performed by DOE National Laboratories, universities, and non-profit partners. All DOE National Laboratories are eligible to participate. The industry partner must provide a participant contribution of at least 20% of the total project funding. View the solicitation here.
HPC4Mfg is funded by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Advanced Manufacturing Office. HPC4Mtls is funded by the Office of Fossil Energy and Carbon Management. To learn more, visit the HPC4EI website and register to attend an information webinar on November 30 or December 8, 2021.

Join Us for Our Human Rights Day Event on December 9th

Source: US Global Legal Monitor

We hope you can join us for our annual Human Rights Day event on December 9, 2021, at 3:30 p.m. EST. Each year, the Law Library of Congress celebrates Human Rights Day to commemorate the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) by the United Nations General Assembly with an event designed to promote understanding and recognition of human rights around the globe. This year’s event focuses on the intersection of health and human rights, with a panel that will bring together leading health and legal scholars and practitioners. The panel will discuss the interactions between health and human rights, and how human rights can help to strengthen public health systems across the globe and improve the response to health challenges.
Please register here

Flyer announcing the upcoming Law Library of Congress Human Rights Day event. Created by Kelly Goles.

The panel will be moderated by Peter Roudik, the assistant law librarian for legal research at the Law Library of Congress and the director of the Law Library’s Global Legal Research Directorate.

The panelists are as follows:

Lucy Mize. Ms. Mize spent 24 years in the field in Indonesia and West Africa before she joined the USAID Asia Bureau as the health team lead. In that role, Mize leads eight technical experts providing health programming support to over 20 countries across Asia.

Helena Nygren-Krug. Professor Nygren-Krug is a senior advisor on human rights and the law in the executive office of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).

Judit Sándor. Dr. Sándor is a professor of law and bioethics at Central European University (CEU). She served as the chief of the Bioethics Section at UNESCO and is the founding director of the Center for Ethics and Law in Biomedicine (CELAB) at CEU.

Alicia Ely Yamin. Dr. Yamin is currently a lecturer on law and the senior fellow on Global Health and Rights at the Petrie-Flom Center for Health Law Policy, Biotechnology and Bioethics at Harvard Law School; and an adjunct senior lecturer on Health Policy and Management at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

Meet the Fall 2021 Herencia Interns

Source: US Global Legal Monitor

This fall, the Digital Resources Division of the Law Library of Congress is hosting its third consecutive remote internship program for the Herencia: Centuries of Spanish Legal Documents crowdsourcing campaign. Herencia interns are responsible for reviewing, transcribing, and promoting this collection of Spanish legal documents from the 15th – 19th centuries, with the goal of making these historical documents better understood and more accessible to researchers. You can find examples of original research performed by previous Herencia interns here. Here is a look at our impressive fall 2021 cohort!

Silvia Lopez. Photo by Silvia Lopez.

Silvia Lopez is from Colombia and is currently an A.L.M. student in the field of anthropology and archeology at Harvard University. She received a B.S. in industrial engineering and co-founded a cybersecurity company in which she led the marketing department for over 10 years. Silvia is a believer in the power of combining technology and humanities for enriching organizations and societies. In particular, she is interested in how technology may facilitate and improve the analysis of traditional and contemporary subjects within the humanities, arts, and social sciences. Silvia is also an advocate of gender equality and diversity in the workplace. Outside of her academic work, she enjoys traveling, hiking, and learning about history and arts.

Alèxia Devin. Photo by Lucas Liesa.

Alèxia Devin is a senior undergraduate student at the University of Barcelona (UB) in Spain. She is majoring in philosophy with a minor in classical literature, which allows her to explore two of her main academic interests: 20th century European philosophy and ancient Greek mythology. She’s using her dominion of Catalan, Spanish, and English to transcribe historical Spanish documents for the Herencia project at the Law Library. When she’s not in her local library, she can be found cooking for (and with) her friends, drawing, or hiking in the Spanish countryside.

Celine Huang. Photo by Jeff Huang. 

Celine Huang is a recent graduate from NYU, who currently resides in the suburbs of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She received her B.A. in social science with a focus in political science in addition to a minor in creative writing. Celine has spent the summer interning at the Law Library of Congress and creating a Story Map and blog. This fall she is excited to continue her work at the Law Library by interning with the Herencia Crowdsourcing Campaign to transcribe the Spanish legal documents from the 15th to 19th century. In her spare time, she is writing her first science fiction novel, learning to cook, teaching herself how to draw digitally and with fountain pens, and traveling to new places.

Anna Weese-Grubb. Photo by Dan Reams Photography.

Anna Weese-Grubb is a current third-year undergraduate student at the University of Virginia, majoring in medieval and renaissance literature in both English and Spanish and minoring in history and sociology. She is currently working as an intern for SHINE Systems, a Charlottesville-based government contractor, alongside the Law Library of Congress internship. When not working, she writes poetry, some of which is published in the V Magazine at the university.

Johannah Ball. Photo by Mark Kidd Studios.

Johannah Ball is currently a Master of Science in Library Science student at the University of Kentucky. In addition to the Herencia internship, she works as an archives assistant at the Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History at the University of Kentucky. She received a Bachelor of Arts in political science with a Spanish minor at the University of Kentucky in 2019. Johannah also previously interned with the federal government at the State Department in 2018. Johannah is fluent in Spanish and enjoys lap swimming and reading.

Francesca Marquez. Photo by Francesca Marquez.

Francesca Marquez is a recent alumnus of the University of Southern California, graduating with a degree in economics and a minor in English. She is interested in the intersections of law, economics, and gender, more specifically how gender equality laws can streamline a nation’s economic efficiency. Outside of her academic interests, she loves to read literary fiction and consume coffee with gusto.

Cameron Hub. Photo by Cameron Hub.

Cameron Hub, a native of Oakland, California, currently lives in Washington, D.C., where he works as a research fellow for a nonprofit in the District. He received his bachelor’s degree from Seattle University, majoring in interdisciplinary liberal studies with minors in Spanish, economics, and philosophy. While a student, he studied abroad in Madrid, Spain, and worked as a research assistant studying American economic history. He is thrilled to have the opportunity to serve in an internship that ties together his own interests and experience and sheds light on a unique, fascinating collection.

Katherine DeFonzo. Photo by Judy DeFonzo.

Katherine DeFonzo is a recent graduate of The Catholic University of America, where she completed the joint masters degree program in history and library science. During this time, she served as the Graduate Library Preprofessional (GLP) in the Semitics/ICOR Library on campus, where her work focused on the digitization of manuscripts from the Near East. She holds a B.A. in history and Spanish literature from Fordham University, where she was also a member of the Rose Hill Honors Program. She previously worked as an intern in the Archives Center at The Museum of American History in Washington, D.C. Her research interests include Spanish colonialism and Spanish-American relations during the Early Republic.

Subscribe to In Custodia Legis – it’s free! – to receive interesting posts drawn from the Law Library of Congress’s vast collections and our staff’s expertise in U.S., foreign, and international law.

December 2021 US Law Webinar – Tracing Federal Regulations

Source: US Global Legal Monitor

The Law Library of Congress’s next offering in its Orientation to Legal Research Webinar Series will focus on the laws created by the executive branch of the U.S. federal government—rules and regulations. In the “Tracing Federal Regulations” webinar, scheduled for Thursday, December 2, 2021, from 11:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. EST, attendees will learn about the notice-and-comment rulemaking process, particularly the publication and citation of federal regulations. The webinar will then explore how to trace a regulation, delineating how to take a section found in the Code of Federal Regulations back to its notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register, and then use that information to find the regulation’s department or agency docket. Please register here.

Labor Relations Board, docket books for each regional & home office. Herbert Glaser Administrative Asst. Harris & Ewing photograph collection. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. //

Orientation to Legal Research: Tracing Federal Regulations

Date: Thursday, December 2, 11:00 AM EST – 12:00 PM EST

Content: Provides participants with information about the notice-and-comment rulemaking process, including the publication and citation of federal regulations as well as exploring how to trace a federal regulation.

Instructor: Elizabeth Osborne – senior legal reference librarian at the Law Library. Elizabeth holds a BA in justice from American University, a JD from the Brooklyn Law School, and a Master of Science in Information Science from the University of Tennessee.

Register here.

We hope that you will be able to join us for this presentation. If you have any questions about this offering or other Law Library webinars, please visit the Legal Research Institute or contact us through Ask A Librarian.

Subscribe to In Custodia Legis – it’s free! – to receive interesting posts drawn from the Law Library of Congress’s vast collections and our staff’s expertise in U.S., foreign, and international law.

New Acquisition: 15th-Century Manuscript on the Laws of War for Knights

Source: US Global Legal Monitor

A few months ago, I highlighted on this blog two medieval manuscripts that the Law Library recently acquired. In this post, I would like to announce the acquisition of another new addition to the Law Library’s growing collection of medieval manuscripts, a remarkable 15th-century manuscript of L’Arbre des Batailles (The Tree of Battles) by the Provençal author Honorat Bovet.

The Law Library’s 15th-century manuscript of l’Arbre des Batailles of Honorat Bovet. Photo by Nathan Dorn.

Bovet was born around the year 1350 to a family situated in the town of Valernes in Provence, France. He took his vows as a Benedictine monk in the Abbey of l’Ile-Barbe in Lyon sometime before 1368 and received his doctorate in canon law at the University of Avignon in 1386. He served as the prior of Selonnet in Provence. Between 1384 and 1389 he composed L’Arbre des Batailles, which he dedicated to Charles VI of France. Charles VI in turn gave Bovet a pension and employed him in diplomatic capacities. (Millet and Hanly, pp. 147-150.) After 1393, he took up residence in Paris and remained closely connected to the royal court. (Kilgour, p. 352.)

Despite Bovet’s high degree of learning, he chose to write L’Arbre des Batailles not as an academic treatise, but as an accessible guide book for knights, heralds, and men-at-arms who engaged in combat and who were in need of a usable reference work for their endeavors. The work is divided into four books. In the first two books, Bovet offers an overview of history based in part on the Book of Revelation and on part on Paulus Orosius’ Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri vii, which was one of the primary sources of narrative history about Greek and Roman antiquity available in the West until the Renaissance. This was meant to give context to the act of combat. The third and fourth book, which comprise about three quarters of the whole work, deal with questions relating to battle. There, Bovet discusses legal and moral principles, issues of strategy and efficacy versus custom and virtue; he touches on rules governing coats of arms and trial by combat; he relates to various practical aspects of war, including compensation for combatants, ransom and relations with non-combatants. He is one of the earlier voices of compassion for non-combatants and outrage at knights who commit unwarranted harm to peasants. (Kilgour, pp. 354-356.) These topics are organized into 140 short scholastic style questions and answers that present his analysis in an easy to grasp form. Some examples will give the flavor of the questions addressed:

“Whether in time of war the ass should have the privilege of the ox”; “Whether a place can be taken by escalade in time of truce”; “Whether a Christian King can give safe-conduct to a Saracen King”; “Whether a wager of battle can be fought before a Queen.” (Myers, p. 437.)

The third and fourth book of Bovet’s work were in essence a popularization of an earlier work by the Bolognese professor of canon law, Giovanni da Legnano. Legnano’s work De bello, de represaliis et de duelo, which he composed in 1360, appeared in print in the 15th century; the Law Library owns it in this early edition. There is also a modern edition of the work with an introduction and English translation published in 1917 by Sir Thomas Erskine Holland (1835-1926).

The painted miniature on this page of the Law Library’s manuscript of l’Arbre des Batailles depicts l’arbre de douleur, or the tree of suffering. Photo by Nathan Dorn.

Bovet’s work was very well-received, a popularity attested by the existence of over 90 manuscripts of the work in collections throughout the world. The Law Library owns one additional 15th-century manuscript of the work. It was also heavily translated and adapted in other works. L’Arbre des Batailles was translated for Gilbert de la Hayes of Roslyn, Scotland in 1456. There were also Castilian, Catalan, and Occitan translations by the mid-15th century. There were at least six editions of it printed before 1501. The French poet Christine de Pisan (1364-1430), operating in the court of Charles VI, relied very heavily on Bovet’s work in writing her Livre des faits d’armes et de chevalerie (The Book of Feats of Arms and of Chivalry), which appeared in 1410. William Caxton published this work in English as Boke of the fayt of armes and of chyualrye in 1489. The Library has a modern English translation of Christine de Pisan’s book by Sumner Willard. Other works were influenced by Bovet as well, including Blason des Couleurs by Sicile, herald of Alfonso V of Aragon; Boke of Noblesse by William Worcester; Nicholas Upton’s De Studio Militari; and Le Jouvencel of Jean de Bueil.

The manuscript that the Law Library acquired is a substantial 152 parchment folios measuring 298mm x 203mm. It was likely produced in Rouen, France, around the year 1479. The binding, which is from the 18th century, is brown calf over pasteboard. The manuscript once belonged to Sir Thomas Phillipps and retains on its spine the small paper label with the number Phillipps assigned to it, 4544.

There is one large miniature on the verso of the second folio, which depicts “l’arbre de douleur” or “the tree of suffering,” an image that Bovet touches upon in his work. It is a tree with several layers of branches in which various scenes and actors appear in each layer. At the apex appears the figure of Fortune and her wheel. In the top branches, the ecclesiastical leadership can be seen at the left, and the secular rulers at the right. The second level shows a battle of mounted soldiers. At the lowest level, knights fight with axes on the left and soldiers hassle peasants on the right.

As a fun aside, there is a problem with Bovet’s name. Customarily, he has been known as Honoré Bonet. This is reflected in the Library of Congress authority record for this author. Many authors now use the form Honorat Bovet, which was proposed as a correction by French historian and paleographer Gilbert Ouy. Honorat is the Provençal form of Honoré. Bonet and Bovet are graphically indistinguishable in manuscripts, as are the attested forms Bonnet and Bouvet. Meantime, many variants are attested: Bonet, Bonnet, Bovet, Bouet, Bouvet, Bongnet, Bonnor, Bonhor, Bonhar and in Latin, Boneti, Boveti, and Beneti. Ouy pointed out that Bovet is to be preferred because the author’s armor bore an image of a young bull (bouvillon) and Bovet himself cited Carobovis as his surname (in Latin). Bovet preserves the bovine association of both the author’s name and his armor. (Millet and Hanly, pp. 138-139.)


Bonet, Honoré, active 1378-1398; Ernest Nys. L’arbre des batailles d’Honoré Bonet. Bruxelles: C. Muquardt, 1883.

Bonet, Honoré, active 1378-1398. The buke of the law of armys; or, Buke of bataillis; ed. with introduction by J. H. Stevenson. Edinburgh and London, Printed for the Society by W. Blackwood and sons, 1901.

Bonet, Honoré, active 1378-1398. Arbre des batailles. Liverpool, University Press, 1949.

Bonet, Honoré, active 1378-1398. L’arbre des batailles / Honore Bovet; edition d’apres le manuscrit Bibliotheque de Geneve (BGE), comites latentes 168 par Reinhilt Richter-Bergmeier. Geneve: Droz, [2017]

Bonet, Honoré, active 1378-1398. Arbre des batailles. Spanish. Árbol de batallas / Honoré de Bouvet; versión castellana atribuida a Diego de Valera; introducion, edicion y notas de Antorio Contreras Martin. Spain: Ministerio de Defensa, 2008.

Kilgour, Raymond L. “Honoré Bonet: A Fourteenth-Century Critic of Chivalry.” PMLA, Vol. 50, No. 2 (Jun., 1935), pp. 352-361.

Martin, Robert. “L’Arbre des batailles [Textes littéraires français, 644] by Honoré Bovetand Reinhilt Richter-Bergmeier.” Romania, Vol. 135, No. 539/540 (3/4) (2017), pp. 498-500. (book review)

Millet, Hélène and Hanly, Michael. “Les Batailles d’Honorat Bovet: Essai de Biographie.” Romania., Vol. 114, No. 453/454 (1/2) (1996), pp. 135-181.

Myers, Denys P. “The Tree of Battles of Honore Bonet / by G. W. Coopland.” The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Apr. 1950), p. 437. (book review)