JANUARY IS NATIONAL HUMAN TRAFFICKING AWARENESS MONTH

Source: US GOIAM Union

January is National Human Trafficking Awareness Month. In 2010, President Barack Obama declared January “National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month” and every year since, each president has followed this tradition. The proclamation dedicated the month of January to raise awareness about human trafficking, and to educate the public on how to identify and prevent this crime.

What is Human Trafficking?

The formal definition of human trafficking is “the unlawful act of transporting or coercing people in order to benefit from their work or service, typically in the form of forced labor or sexual exploitation.” (Oxford Dictionary). Traffickers see their victims as commodities, without regard for their dignity or human rights. They sell people for a price that can range from tens of US dollars to tens of thousands, with large criminal organizations making the highest incomes. Every country in the world is affected by human trafficking, whether as a country of origin, transit, or destination for victims—or sometimes all three.

Most women and girl victims are trafficked for sexual exploitation, whereas men and boys are mainly trafficked for forced labor. For every 10 victims detected globally in 2018, about five were adult women and two were young girls. Around 20 per cent of human trafficking victims were adult men and 15 per cent were young boys.

Conflict further exacerbates vulnerabilities, with armed groups exploiting civilians and traffickers targeting forcibly displaced people. This crime has proliferated during the COVID-19 pandemic, as women, children, and men worldwide are out of work, out of school, and without social support—leaving them at the mercy of criminal traffickers seeking to take advantage of the pandemic to exploit the vulnerable.

Did you know that the IAM advocated for its members in our Transportation Territory, both in the United States and Canada, to be trained to spot, take action, and alert authorities for those who may be victims of trafficking? “Airline workers can be the last lines of defense when it comes to human trafficking. So it is extremely important they are knowledgeable and know what signs to look for, how to respond and how to report the suspected activity,” according to Sara Gonzales, District Lodge 142 General Chair. Customer service agents and/or flight attendants are trained annually on how to spot and report someone who may be a victim of human trafficking or otherwise involved in human trafficking.

You can help raise awareness of these issues by getting more involved in your Local Lodge’s Humans Rights and/or Women’s Committees. The US State Department also has a list of ways you can help fight human trafficking.

If you believe you or someone you know is a victim of human trafficking or may have information about a trafficking situation, please call the National Human Trafficking Hotline toll-free at 1-888-373-7888 or visit https://humantraffickinghotline.org.  You can also text the National Human Trafficking Hotline at 233733. If you or someone you know is in immediate danger, please call 911.

Sources:

President Joe Biden, “A Proclamation on National Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2022,” available at https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/presidential-actions/2021/12/30/a-proclamation-on-national-human-trafficking-prevention-month-2022/#_blank

“Human Trafficking.” Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries online, available at https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/us/definition/english/human-trafficking?q=Human+Trafficking

Share and Follow:

Join Us at the 2022 AFL-CIO MLK Civil and Human Rights Conference

Source: US GOIAM Union

Save the date, as the IAM and our allies will gather virtually on January 16-17 for the 2022 AFL-CIO Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Civil and Human Rights Conference.

Register now for the 2022 AFL-CIO MLK Civil and Human Rights Conference.

We will build on our victories and strategize about the continued fight for economic and racial justice with—and also within—the labor movement.

The theme of January’s conference is “Honoring Our Past and Protecting Our Future.”

The 2022 observance marks the 26th year of the conference where we celebrate the legacy of Dr. King, reinforce the longstanding bond between the labor and civil rights movements, and both prepare and empower participants to carry on the fight for justice and equality. This year’s conference will be virtual.

This year’s conference will focus on the past, present and future connection between the labor and civil rights movement, the importance of strengthening our rights and the critical role that workers play in shaping our democracy.

Sessions and trainings will be held online so everyone can attend safely.

Register now for the 2022 AFL-CIO MLK Civil and Human Rights Conference.

Share and Follow:

DL 751 Well Represented at the LEADS Program

Source: US GOIAM Union

IAM LEADS Fight for Gender Equity was the title for the below article featured in the 751 Aero Mechanic October 2021 written by District Lodge 751. The Women’s Department is excited to roll out this new program and we wanted to share what members at DL 751 have to say. Please see their article below.

District 751 was well-represented in the initial Leadership Excellence Assembly of Dedicated Sisters (LEADS) program. District 751 President Jon Holden (top row far right), and Carolyn Romeo (front row 4th from right) along with Kim Gifford (front row 3rd from right) participated in the Initial program launch.

The Machinists Union is following through on its promise to support women in their efforts to rise through the ranks of the IAM to leadership positions across North America.

International President Robert Martinez Jr. announced the creation of the Leadership Excellence Assembly of Dedicated Sisters (LEADS) program earlier this year. The program’s mission is to prepare more IAM sisters for the roles of Business Representatives, Directing Business Representatives, President/Directing General Chairs and other union leaders, so they can make informed decisions about seeking higher office.

More than 10 district leaders and 25 women members, representing every territory of the IAM, attended a meeting at the William W. Winpisinger Education and Technology Center to plan curriculum for upcoming classes. The meeting began with motivating and sometimes emotional stories from General Secretary-Treasurer Dora Cervantes about obstacles she has had to overcome in her rise to the second highest position of the union.

“The value of gender diversity – particularly in the workplace – cannot be overstated,” said Cervantes. “It starts with our union.”

“Having more female leaders in positions of influence is not only critical to the overall advancement of our IAM sisters, but to our entire union as a whole,” said Cervantes. “We can’t talk change in the workplace without female voices at the table.”

The LEADS program is being developed in the field, for the field and is a joint venture between the Women’s and Human Rights Department and the Winpisinger Center in Hollywood, Md.

District 751 President Jon Holden, along with Local A Officer Kim Gifford and Local F Joint Programs Coordinator Carolyn Romeo, took part in the program.

“This was my first time at W3 training center. It was an eye-opening experience and a great opportunity to connect with other women in different locals from around the country,” said 751-A’s Kim Gifford. “It made me realize that we can be resources together in our overarching struggles. I also realized the true position of privilege that I have in 751. There have been many strong women who paved the way and have shown what an asset strong women are in the labor movement.”

“I was thankful to have such a great opportunity in attending LEADs. It was amazing to hear the different stories from other women in districts around the country and how they are being treated in the workplace. Some of them shared stores about being verbally and even physically abused,” said 751-F’s Carolyn Romeo. “It was eye-opening to hear these things and made me realize how grateful I am for the rights we have in the workplace and the hard work our past and present 751 women have done for creating a safe and inclusive space for women in our workplace. We also had the pleasure of spending time and connecting with Dora Cervantes and Julie Frietchen (IAM Education Rep).”

“I personally felt honored to see the commitment and engagement from these members and leaders to develop a program that will grow our union by building a deeper bench of strong leaders that reflect our membership long into the future,” said Carla M. Siegel, IAM Women’s and Human Rights Department Director and General Counsel.

Participants identified obstacles, brainstormed solutions, and dealt with the painful realities many IAM women members face in their quest to excel, as well as new obstacles that so often present themselves once a woman does achieve a higher position. They also discussed how to build a program that works with districts of all sizes and independent lodges. Accessibility was another important topic of discussion, including affordability.

“Together, you are going to be the driving force behind creating pathways for countless more women to take their rightful place in leadership roles in the IAM,” said Martinez. “Let me be crystal clear; that means our IAM Sisters must be in leadership positions at every level of our union. Not just at the local lodge level, but at the district lodge and Grand Lodge levels as well.”

“The LEADS Program is about ensuring that our organization is relevant in the future; workforce demographics have changed dramatically – women now make up 57% of the workforce,” said Winpisinger Center Director Chris Wagoner.  “The LEADS Program ensures that our leadership ranks reflect our future membership.  LEADS positions the IAM for success in the future. LEADS opens doors and creates opportunities for sisters to lead.”

The LEADS program is still in its planning stages, but organizers hope to roll it out in the next few months.

Share and Follow:

Latina Equal Pay Day

Source: US GOIAM Union

This year Latina Equal Pay Day falls on October 21st.  That is correct, it takes one year and 10 months for the average Latina woman to earn the wages that her white non-Hispanic male counterparts make in a year. Latinas typically earn only 55 cents for every dollar earned by white, non-Hispanic men. Given that this is the last “Equal Pay Day” observance of the year, Latinas must work longer than … everyone. This disparity hurts not only Latinas, but also the families and communities they support. (Latinaequalpay.org)

That is why we partner with consistency groups like Labor Council for Latin American Advancement (LCLAA). They have been educating, lobbying and organizing for Latinos’ rights for the past 48 years.

We need groups like LCLAA to help us fight for Latinas’ rights, more so now than ever during the current pandemic. EPI reports that many Latinas are essential workers. These occupations include grocery stores, restaurant and service industry jobs like hotels, teachers, and child care workers. Those in the hotel and restaurant industries have also heavily shouldered the cost of job loss (EPI).

Source: EPI

Even among higher paying jobs, Latinas still trail woefully behind, The largest pay disparities are shown in the medical field among doctors and nurses.

Your voice needs to be heard this day to help stop the pay disparity for Latina Women. Help in the fight and visit https://www.latinaequalpay.org/ and participate in the twitter storm or other activities near you.

Resources:

www.latinaequalpay.org.

https://www.epi.org/blog/latina-equal-pay-day-essential-latina-workers-face-substantial-pay-gap-during-covid-19-pandemic/

Share and Follow:

IAM Delegates Elected At Coalition of Labor Union Women Convention

Source: US GOIAM Union

Machinists Union members elected new delegates at the Coalition of Labor Union Women’s 21stBiennial Convention earlier this month. Terri Myette of Local 751F, Jessica Deming of Local 63 and Kristi Kidrick of Local 751A were chosen to represent the IAM at upcoming meetings of CLUW’s National Executive Board (NEB). Alternate delegates include Bridgette Hardy of Local 751A, Ariel Ragasa-McKenzie of Local 751C and Kimberly Gifford of Local 751A. Additional alternate delegates are Midwest Territory Grand Lodge Representative Larry Young and Western Territory Special Representative Melissa Campbell.

Mary McHugh, Assistant Director of the William W. Winpisinger Education and Technology Center, was elected to the National Officer’s Council (NOC) as one of 17 Vice Presidents.

“IAM delegates to the convention selected a great group of activists to represent the IAM on the National Executive Board,” McHugh said. “I’m looking forward to working with all IAM CLUW members and our sisters from other unions to promote women’s participation and leadership in the labor movement and advocate for issues important to all working women.”

The theme of the convention was “Vision, Vote, Victory” and embodies CLUW’s plans to break more glass ceilings by working to move more women into leadership positions in our unions, our government and our communities. Kenya Conway of IAM Local 86 performed the song, “America the Beautiful,” during one of the musical interludes.

IAM General Secretary Treasurer Dora Cervantes sent a video message to welcome the more than 350 attendees on the first day of the convention.

“Our collective voices can change the world… one event, one issue and one law at a time,” Cervantes said. “The IAM is proud to be a partner in this fight and I’m glad so many women and men from the Machinists Union are a part of this great organization.”

Delegates listened to a keynote address from AFL-CIO President Liz Shuler and other prominent leaders in the labor movement. They considered resolutions and constitutional amendments that set the future direction for CLUW.

CLUW is a constituency group of the AFL-CIO and its conventions take place every two years. If you’re interested in becoming a member, fill out this interactive form.

Share and Follow:

National Hispanic Heritage Month Begins on September 15th

Source: US GOIAM Union

National Hispanic Heritage Month is recognized September 15th through October 15th and traditionally honors the cultures and contributions of both Hispanic and Latino Americans rooted in all Latin American countries.

We also celebrate the hurdles and challenges that have been overcome by these Hispanic and Latino Americans, while acknowledging that there is still a great deal more to do to address inequality and injustice. We as activists know these struggles very well. We can relate to Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta and their fight for workers’ rights by starting the National Farm Workers Association, which is now United Farm Workers (UFW). They fought for dignity and respect, wining increased wages and better working conditions.

Other Hispanic Labor activists include Ernesto Galaraza, a renowned author who fought alongside the American Federation of Labor and who is known for his help shutting down the Bracero Program and its mistreatment of workers. Or Gilberto Gerena Valetin who played a central role in the 1964 boycott of the New York City Schools over segregation, fighting for equal education for all students. Camelita Torres known for the Bath Riots. In 1917 Torres refused to strip of her clothes and take the gasoline bath Mexicans were forced daily to take when crossing the border to work in Texas. She convinced 30 other trolley passengers and onlookers to rally with her. And we cannot forget our very own Hispanic/Latino leaders International President Martinez, General Secretary Treasurer Cervantes, General Vice President Allen and General Vice President Pantoja, along with the other Hispanic and Latino representatives of the IAM in our District and Local Lodges.

We still lobby and fight for equal rights for the Latino workforce. We partner with constituency groups like Labor Council for Latin American Advancement (LCLAA) to ensure that these issues are being heard and that the community is informed of what is happening.

There are several events honoring the cultures and contributions of Hispanic and Latino Americans during this month , Learn more at  https://www.hispanicheritagemonth.gov/

References:

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5176177?storyId=5176177

https://www.hispanicheritagemonth.gov/

Share and Follow:

Today We Celebrate Women’s Equality Day

Source: US GOIAM Union

August 26th is Women’s Equality Day

Fundamental human rights—like voting and participating in a representative form of government—rightfully belong to all of a nation’s citizens. However, voting rights were denied to women until very recently. That is why we celebrate Women’s Equality Day in the United States on August 26—to commemorate the 1920 adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex.

The path to achieving this Amendment wasn’t easy. Before 1776, white women had a vote in several of the colonies in what would become the United States, but by 1807 every state constitution had denied women even limited suffrage. In the early 19th century, women started to take to the streets in protest for their right to vote. But thanks to the 19th Amendment, gender cannot play a role in a state’s consideration of whether someone can vote. Every year on August 26, we commemorate and celebrate this milestone and other achievements of women’s rights activists. It is also a reminder of the hurdles and struggles women and minorities still face today.

The IAM’s members and representatives are all too familiar with these struggles as we continue to work for not only workplace fairness but also equality in our communities. The struggle remains real as is evident through the recent push for numerous voting and balloting laws that suppress hundreds of thousands of eligible voters. Between January 1 and July 14, 2021, more than 400 bills restricting voting access have been introduced in 49 states; during that same time, 18 states have enacted laws that make it harder for people to vote. The laws make mail voting and early voting more difficult, they impose harsh voter ID requirements, and they make purging eligible voters from the rolls more likely (Waldman). These voter suppression laws often target women, minorities, and other groups who traditionally support laws empowering working families.

We all know we would not have the benefits and security we have in the workplace without having a Union that fights for a fair collective bargaining agreement, and the same effort must be applied to protecting fair voting laws. Without representatives in office who care about workers, we can lose many of our protections. 

That’s why the Machinists proudly supported the “For the People Act.” Introduced in the House as H.R. 1 and the Senate as S. 1, the For the People Act will expand voting rights, change campaign finance laws to reduce the influence of money in politics, ban partisan gerrymandering, and create new ethics rules for federal officeholders. This bill passed in the House but was filibustered and failed in the Senate.

The IAM also supports legislation that aims to address voter intimidation and suppression tactics across the U.S., such as the “John Lewis Voting Rights Advancement Act,” which w

ould restore and strengthen parts of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 that have been gutted by the Supreme Court.

“Voting and freedom are sacred pillars of our republic and they’re crucial to upholding democracy,” said IAM International President Robert Martinez Jr. “Any attempt to thwart those rights must be strongly opposed by the hard working middle-class families. If it’s voting rights today, then it will be anti-worker laws tomorrow.”

This is why it is essential to vote the right people into any political position, whether it be federal, state, or local office.

Make your voice heard—tell your senators to support the For the People Act, and learn about more ways to get involved helping working people have a say on Capitol Hill here.

References:

https://nationalwomenshistoryalliance.org/resources/commemorations/womens-equality-day/

https://nationaltoday.com/womens-equality-day/

Waldman, Michael, “The Great Vote Suppression Campaign of 2021” (7/27/21) retrieved from: https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/analysis-opinion/great-vote-suppression-campaign-2021

Share and Follow:

Today is Black Women’s Equal Pay Day

Source: US GOIAM Union

Black Women’s Equal Pay Day is the approximate day a Black woman must work into the new year to make what a white non-Hispanic man made by the end of the previous year. This year, the date falls on August 3rd—in other words, it took the average Black woman, working full-time year-round, an 8 extra months to earn what the average white non-Hispanic man earned in the year prior. Based on ACS Census data, the 2021 wage gap was $0.37—or for every $0.63 a Black women earned, non-Hispanic white men earned a dollar. (National Today)

According to the Economic Policy Institute (EPI), studies show that “Black-white wage gaps are large and have gotten worse in the last 20 years,” EPI economist Elise Gould wrote in a blog post last year. “Even Black workers with an advanced degree experience a significant wage gap compared with their white counterparts.” (Tucker)

25 years ago, in 1996, an organization called the National Committee on Pay Equity declared the first observation of Equal Pay Day. Sadly, we are still fighting to this day for pay equity and paycheck fairness. Your Union, the IAM, ensures that all workers are paid equally by bargaining fair and collective bargaining agreements. But we don’t stop there. We continue to push for pay equity and paycheck fairness on legislative agendas at the state and federal levels. Thankfully, the new administration is expected to focus on workplace equity issues, and President Joe Biden has indicated that closing wage gaps and ending paycheck discrimination will be priorities. 

Want to help fight for equal pay? Join a constituency group like the Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW). The IAM works with CLUW to fight together on women’s issues, including Equal Pay for all Women.

References:

National Today, National Black Women’s Equal Pay Day – August 3,2021 retrieved from: https://nationaltoday.com/national-black-womens-equal-pay-day/

Tucker, Michael, How to Ensure Pay Equity for People of Color (3/11/21) Retrieved from: https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/hr-magazine/spring2021/Pages/pay-equity-for-people-of-color.aspx

#BlackWomensEqualPay Day 2021, http://www.equalpaytoday.org/black-womens-equal-pay-day-2021

Share and Follow:

July 30th is World Day Against Trafficking in Persons

Source: US GOIAM Union

July 30th is World Day Against Trafficking in Persons. Established in 2014, the purpose of World Day Against Trafficking in Persons is to raise awareness about human trafficking and to promote and protect the rights of trafficking victims.

What is Human Trafficking?

The formal definition in the dictionary of human trafficking is “the unlawful act of transporting or coercing people in order to benefit from their work or service, typically in the form of forced labor or sexual exploitation” (Oxford Dictionary). Traffickers see their victims as commodities, without regard for dignity or human rights. They sell people for a price that can range from tens to thousands of US Dollars, with large criminal organizations making the highest incomes. Every country in the world is affected by human trafficking, whether as a country of origin, transit, or destination for victims—or sometimes all three.

Most women and girl victims were trafficked for sexual exploitation, whereas men and boys were mainly trafficked for forced labor. For every 10 victims detected globally in 2018, about five were adult women and two were young girls. Around 20 per cent of human trafficking victims were adult men and 15 per cent were young boys.

Conflict further exacerbates vulnerabilities, with armed groups exploiting civilians and traffickers targeting forcibly displaced people. This crime has proliferated during the COVID-19 pandemic, as women, children, and men worldwide are out of work, out of school, and without social support—leaving them at the mercy of criminal traffickers seeking to take advantage of the pandemic to exploit the vulnerable.

Did you know that IAM advocated for its members in our Transportation Territory, both in the United States and Canada to be trained to spot, take action, and alert authorities for those who may be in human trafficking?

“Airline workers can be the last lines of defense when it comes to human trafficking. So it is extremely important they are knowledgeable and know what signs to look for, how to respond and how to report the suspected activity,” according to Sara Gonzales, DL 142 General Chair. Customer service agents and/or flight attendants are trained annually on how to spot and report someone who may be a victim of human trafficking or otherwise involved in human trafficking.

Get more involved today and join your Local Lodges Human’s Rights and/or Women’s Committee.

Facts About Human Trafficking

Source: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

  • Trafficking often occurs from less developed countries to more developed countries.
  • Most trafficking is national or regional, but long-distance trafficking does occur.
  • Europe is the destination for victims from the widest range of destinations, while victims from Asia are trafficked to the widest range of destinations.
  • Sexual exploitation (e.g., sex trafficking) is by far the most commonly identified form of human trafficking. It is the most visible, as other forms of exploitation are under-reported.
  • A disproportionate number of women are involved in human trafficking, both as victims and as culprits.
  • Most trafficking is carried out by people whose nationality is the same as that of their victim.
  • Most trafficked forced labor occurs in agriculture, construction, garments and textiles, catering and restaurants, domestic work, the provision of healthcare services, entertainment and the sex industry.

References:

https://www.compassion.com/world-days/world-day-against-trafficking-in-persons.htm

https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/human-trafficking.html

https://www.unodc.org/unodc/frontpage/2021/February/share-of-children-among-trafficking-victims-increases–boys-five-times-covid-19-seen-worsening-overall-trend-in-human-trafficking–says-unodc-report.html

https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/us/definition/english/human-trafficking?q=Human+Trafficking

Share and Follow:

On This Day in 1984: Women’s Suffrage in Liechtenstein

Source: US Global Legal Monitor

On July 1, 1984, women’s suffrage was introduced in Liechtenstein— making it the last European country to do so. Liechtenstein is situated between Switzerland and Austria and has a total of 38,557 inhabitants. In the 1984 national referendum, a slim majority of 2,370 (male) voters (51.3%) approved the right of Liechtenstein women to vote and stand for election. Article 29, paragraph 2 of the Constitution was amended to read:

All Liechtenstein citizens who have completed their 20th year, have their normal residence in Liechtenstein, and whose right to vote has not been suspended shall be entitled to all political rights in national matters.

In the first elections in which women were allowed to participate, held in 1986, one woman (Emma Eigenmann) was elected to the parliament (Landtag). At that time, the parliament consisted of 15 representatives. The parliament in Liechtenstein has consisted of 25 representatives since 1988. (Constitution, art. 46.) The number of female representatives has fluctuated over time. (Marxer (2013), at 20.) In the last elections held in February 2021, seven women were elected to the parliament, a new record, raising the percentage of female representation to 28%. The new government that was sworn in in March 2021 has a female majority: three women and two men.

Liechtenstein Parliament. June 9, 2019. Photo by Flickr user crash71100. Used under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0.

Historical Development

A first referendum on women’s suffrage, held on February 28, 1971, was rejected by a narrow majority of 51.09% of voters; only 81 more votes were needed to amend the Constitution. A second referendum held just two years later on February 11, 1973, again resulted in a rejection of the proposal, this time by 55.9% of voters. (BuA No. 47/1983, at 10 et seq.) One of the main reasons why women were denied the right to vote was a fear that foreign women who married a Liechtenstein citizen would “take over.” (Marxer (2004), at 6.) At the time, foreign women gained Liechtenstein citizenship by marrying a man from Liechtenstein, whereas a woman who married a foreigner lost her Liechtenstein citizenship. This situation was remedied in 1974 when an amendment to the Citizenship Act was passed that allowed women who had lost their citizenship through marriage to a foreigner to apply to regain their citizenship within five years.

In 1976, a constitutional amendment authorized municipalities to grant women the right to vote in municipal elections by adopting a communal assembly resolution. Vaduz became the first municipality to introduce women’s suffrage on September 19, 1976. Other municipalities soon followed suit, with the exception of the municipality of Schaan, where women’s suffrage was rejected. (BuA No. 47/1983, at 14.)

In 1982, the Liechtenstein Constitutional Court (Staatsgerichtshof, StGH) had to rule on whether not granting women the right to vote was unconstitutional. (StGH 1982/12, in: LES 1983, at 69.) The suit, filed by 24 women, was based on article 31 of the Constitution which states that “[a]ll Liechtenstein citizens shall be equal before the law.” Citizens is understood to mean “all persons holding Liechtenstein national citizenship without distinction of sex.” However, the Constitutional Court held that this article only applied to general rights and not to political rights (i.e., the rights to vote and stand for election). In addition, the Court quoted the New Testament, stating that “[y]our women, let them be silent in the assemblies” as a factor that might have influenced women’s suffrage in Europe. The Constitutional Court concluded that the question of introducing female suffrage was a political question and had to be decided by amending the Constitution.

However, pressure to introduce women’s suffrage was mounting, in particular because Liechtenstein joined the Council of Europe in 1978 and ratified the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) in 1982. In September 1983, in reaction to the Constitutional Court ruling, 12 members of the women’s activist organization “Aktion Dornröschen” (Operation Sleeping Beauty) travelled to Strasbourg to make the Council of Europe aware of the situation of women in Liechtenstein. Some criticized this move as “counterproductive.” Nonetheless, the following year, a new referendum was scheduled, which resulted in the introduction of women’s suffrage. (Marxer (2004), at 9.)

Shall women vote? Ehrhart, Samuel D.,1862-1937. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. //hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.26363.

Further Resources

If you are interested in issues concerning women’s suffrage in Liechtenstein, or women’s suffrage and women’s rights in general, feel free to consult the following selected resources: